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Modigliani s “painting in painting”hides the devil and muse in his life
|time：2021-06-30 ； Number of visits：1006|
Behind a 1917 work "Portrait of a Girl" by Italian artist Amedeo Modigliani in the collection of the British Tate Gallery, it is believed that there is a portrait of another woman hidden after recent research. Although the identity of the model painted on the surface of the canvas is unknown, the covered portrait is basically believed to be Modigliani’s former lover and British poetess Beatrice Hastings.
Two doctoral candidates from the University of London used X-rays and artificial intelligence to analyze Modigliani’s paintings, trying to use “algorithms” and 3D technology to restore the covered portraits with the texture and brushstrokes of oil paintings. This once again evoked people’s interest in Modigliani and Hastings. He painted her repeatedly. Although the couple was notorious in the Parisian art circle for drinking and fighting and fighting each other, it must be said that she is both His devil is also his muse.
Modigliani, "Portrait of a Girl", 1917, Tate Gallery, UK
On a winter day in 1917, the glass window of a small Paris gallery revealed a nude woman's work. The woman in the painting has a charming curve and an enchanting look, attracting a lot of onlookers. The gallery is next to the local police station. Faced with such a large-scale work, the police ordered the gallery to close the exhibition. Modigliani's first and last solo exhibition came to an end.
Poster of Modigliani's only solo exhibition during his lifetime
Three years later, on January 24, 1920, 35-year-old Modigliani died of tuberculous meningitis. Although he was poor and commercially unsuccessful, he sold his works for a few francs, and in 1919, he sold his works for only a few francs. The price of 100 pounds sold all the works of his studio. But his art was finally recognized during his lifetime. Dozens of artists attended his funeral in Paris. Art colleagues include Picasso, painter Juan Gris, and Mexican national treasure painter Diego River. Pull and wait.
The portrait of Hastings, which has been digitally restored, begins in 1906:
That year, the 22-year-old Modigliani first arrived in Paris. At this time, Paris was at a time when art was booming. Cubism led by Picasso, Fauvism of Matisse, Surrealism, Expressionism, Futurism ...Various art schools are very lively, and the passion of Paris inspired his creative desire, but it also made him buried in these many geniuses.
Due to frailty and illness, coupled with the difficulties of living in Paris, Modigliani gradually formed a habit of alcoholism and led a decadent life in poverty and anaesthesia.
In 1914, Modigliani's 5-year-old British poetess and critic Hastings entered his life. She was smart, fashionable, and wealthy, but also violent and fanatical. The stimulant and catalyst that Digliani needs.
Recalling the scene of his first meeting with Modigliani, Hastings said: "Cigar and brandy. No impression... He looked ugly, fierce, and greedy." However, they still became friends. Lovers and wine partners.
Both of them have strong personalities. During their two-year relationship, they were full of passion and quarrel. Tate described them as "savage and wayward people" in the "Bohemians" of Paris in the 1910s. Yes": He lives in the haze of drunkenness-absinthe, wine, marijuana-and dances on the table, recites Italian poetry aloud, and runs rampage at night.
Contemporaries also described Hastings as a "hysterical man", "She was'drunk at nine o'clock', she was'obsessed with Modigliani', they drank together, beat each other..." But black Stings described their "dry frame" as "a royal battle", "He is holding the pot, I am holding the broom..." She added: "How happy I am!"
During the two years spent with her, Modigliani's works have reached unprecedented maturity, intensity and even tranquility. But the independent, unruly, aggressive Hastings exhausted Modigliani. After a heroic breakup in 1916, the rational Hastings switched to the arms of another artist, and Modi returned to himself. The gloomy and bleak house.
Beatrice Hastings by Modigliani in 1915
In 1917, the painting "Portrait of a Girl" was overlaid on the canvas originally painted with Hastings, which may have meant Modigliani's desire to erase Hastings from his life. Although this is a hypothesis, most researchers agree with this interesting hypothesis.
Nancy Ireson, curator of Modigliani's large retrospective at the Tate Modern Gallery in 2017, also hinted that Modigliani “may be the result of their two-year tense relationship in 1916. I wiped her out after it was over."
"When the X-ray accidentally showed the hidden portrait, that moment was exciting. A painting suddenly revealed a ‘secret’ through different viewing methods." Nancy Irison said.
X-ray image of Modigliani's "Portrait of a Girl" in the Tate Gallery, UK
Kenneth Wayne, an expert on Modiaani, said that Modigliani drew 14 oil paintings and dozens of drawings for Hastings. Ni’s influence, and "the period from 1914 to 1916 they interacted with was involved in the development of Modigliani’s iconic style. Although the slender face and neck were thought to have been influenced by African art. From a visual point of view, Hastings is also very likely to have influenced his creation." Among the 14 oil paintings, one is directly named after the lady of the Louis XV era "Madame Pompadour".
Beatrice Hastings by Modigliani in 1915
After Hastings, Jeanne Hébuterne (Jeanne Hébuterne) appeared in Modigliani’s life, and it was precisely because the 19-year-old Jeanne in the exhibition window of the exhibition window in 1917 shocked the girl. The family led the exhibition to a hasty close. Compared with the independent, unruly, aggressive Hastings, Jenny is gentle and submissive. In 1917, in order to marry Modigliani, Jenny broke with the family. In 1920, the day after hearing of her husband’s death, Jenny, who was pregnant with their second child, committed suicide and followed her husband. The ending of Hastings was equally tragic. Her health was destroyed by alcohol. In 1943, the terminally ill Hastings committed suicide in Britain.
Today, two doctoral candidates from the University of London, Anthony Brahe (high-dimensional neuroscience expert) and George Kanzheng (physical expert), use X-rays to analyze Modigliani’s paintings with "algorithms". Go over the surface of the painting to restore the covered portrait.
Among them, Anthony Brahe, an expert in high-dimensional neuroscience, tried to use artificial intelligence to simulate human behavior; George Camzhen’s main work is to analyze trace gases in the Martian atmosphere. He believes that interdisciplinary research can deepen humans’ understanding of art works. Understanding: "There may be thousands of artworks hidden under the painting layer. Technology will be able to make the covered layer visible again."
Digitally restored, covered portrait of Hastings
Although Kenneth Wayne admits that Modigliani’s portraits of Hastings are quite different—sometimes round faces, sometimes elongated, and with different hair colors—he still believes in this hidden portrait. It's her.
Regarding the process of recreating this painting, Brahe frankly used standard mathematical techniques. “The edges and contours of Modigliani are like drawn on a blackboard with chalk. We learn how to use the most advanced artificial intelligence technology. Reproduce the color and texture of the original picture." They believe that combining technical image analysis and the professional knowledge of art historians to study works is an experimental research direction.
When asked if he had considered Modigliani’s feelings, Brahe said, “But the value of art is to record information. Historians also want to uncover things that we don’t know in the past.”
However, the Tate Art Museum declined to comment on this restoration practice, because it was not a project that the art museum participated in.
Modigliani, "Self-Portrait", 1919
But a hundred years after Modigliani's death, he has become a widely talked character, from seldom intriguing to museums and individual collectors competing for collections, from the suspension of exhibitions due to "pornography" during his lifetime to exhibitions a hundred years later. A large number of "counterfeit" later generations have been shut down. Although Modigliani's creative scope is very narrow, these works he created are the most beautiful things in his short life, absurdly long and slender nose, columnar neck, empty, fuzzy and melancholy pairs of eyes and his name. Together was kept forever.
Modigliani, "Jenny Huberney", 1919